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*TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corporation

Volume V Number 1

January 1982

Features

A 12-column Ledger - Fred Blechman 13

Business Computers: A planning guide - Joel Makower----22

BASIC Compilers - Staff 33

Expand your Color computer memory - R Wayne Day 38

Shift for uppercase - William R Bell 43

Exatron's Floppy disk controller - Staff 46

To Capitalize or not to capitalize - Larry Krengel 50

Linked list subroutines - Richard M Straw 58

Happiness is a printer - Larry Krengel 64

Goldplug 80 evaluation - Jim Klaproth 65

Hog Jowl Mansion - Jon J Waples 66

Z-Subs, Revisited - Spencer Hall 79

How to find execution points - Glenn W Collura 88

Build it yourself, in BASIC - Dan Connors 91

Spacer - Lou Pa 94

The Corvus hard disk system - T R Dettmann 107

Inside the FOR...NEXT loop - R C Bahn 110

Reviews

Tuesday morning quarterback - game review 118

BASIC better and faster - book review 120

Space War - game review 120

BasicPro - utility review 122

Typing Tutor - self improvement review 122

Departments

Editorial 2

Letters to the Editor 4

Items at random 6

New products 8

Tandy topics - Ed Juge 10

Captain 80 - Bob Liddil 54

System/Command - James F Williams 103

Notes 1 24

Advertiser index 126

Back issue availability 126

Unclassified ads 127

As one who writes a number of retail installment contracts each week, and who used to calculate each with a calculator, I was happy to see the contract program in the Sep/Oct 81 issue.

After running the program, though, I became concerned that the interest formulas don't seem valid for this state (I'm in Washington).

Here are the changes I made in order to obtain correct rates for my location:

1080 RI = IR/ 1200 1090 PF =(1 -(1 + RI) ~ (-MP))/RI : PMT =(INT(BF/ PF * 100 + .5))/100 1120 FC = (MP + PMT) - BF 1130 TP = PMT + MP : K1 = TP + DP!

In line 900, change "ADD-ON" to "ANNUAL". This way, you need not recalculate the annual rate - it's assumed to be correct. You may also want to delete lines 1790-1890, which caluclate the Texas rate, and delete 750-790, to eliminate the Texas instructions. If so, change line 740 to:

740 GOSUB 910 : RETURN By using this method, you assume all equal payments, and not bother with an odd last payment. CAUTION: If you charge the maximum legal rate, you may wish to add "-0.01" to the end of 1190. Otherwise, rounding errors could cause your interest to be a few cents over the legal rate. In lines 1190 and 1710 change "MP-1" to "MP".

My own contracts are figured with a minimum 2% down payment, so I added:

1005 PRINTS) 516, " (MINIM UM DOWN PAY'T"; : PRINT USING " $###.##"; (GT/5 ); : PRINT ")";

Finally, if you intend to use this program "for real", I strongly suggest you take a sample run to your banker or accountant and double check that it's correct.

Ron Manor Olympia, WA

Just recently I got a batch of your back numbers and just had to write to tell you what a great magazine you put out.

...there are so many good things in the last six issues it is difficult to pick one out but I think I'd opt for the Graphics Editor, by William Mason...

Ms. Sheena Scott Edinburgh, Scotland (Joe Fettig of J. F. Consulting was also fascinated by Bill Mason's article. As a result, he contacted Bill and had him expand on the original idea and produce the Graphics Editor and Programmer announced in this issue's new product section. Ed.)

I've read in articles that using the improper ink with a dot-matrix printer can cause damage to the printhead. I've seen an article for adding a re-inking attachment to a printer but it did not mention the ink to use if your printer was the dot-matrix type. I've tried to find the answer locally but have had absolutely no luck. My question is what brand and type ink can I use to keep my ribbon printing dark?

Arthur Plante, Jr Acushnet, MA

(There are different kinds of ink, many of which are designed for mechanical devices (printers, numberers and cash registers, to name a few). These contain some kind of lubricant to prevent the ink from drying out and to act as a lubricant for the mechanism.

If you are looking at a commercial re-inker, then use the ink they recommend. If yours is home-built, then use an ink designed for a cash register or numbering machine. If you can't find one of these, then possibly a self-inking stamp ink would work. Stay away from the common fountain pen inks and stamp pad inks, as they contain little or no lubricants. Ed)

In the Jul/Aug 81 issue you have printed a list of printer results... The results of my, test bear out what you have discovered in your test. However, there are discrepancies in the methodology you have chosen.

It is fine to set out parameters in order to compare, but there are some things I would like to point out. If you determine cps in any printer, the thing to do is to use the entire line of print at a set cpi.

It became apparent that using less characters in a given line will give a slower cps, as in most printers the printhead must travel the full carriage (and return on non-bidirectional printers).

I have found by using the above parameter, the results show manufacturer's rated cps is more than was tested... Another program I wrote gave similar results. But as can be seen, the more characters in a line, the better the cps.

I believe that this is what the manufacturer is giving in his ratings.

Hazen R. Stump Burnaby, BC Canada (In talking to a number of manufacturers, the cps rating is consistently specified as "instantaneous" print speed. This means that no consideration is given for carriage return, starting or stopping, all of which affect throughput which is more meaningful in measuring printer speed than an "instantaneous" rating. As a result, many manufacturers are now rating their printers at lines per minute (usually at 80 characters per line) which does take into account time involved in carriage movement. Ed.)

I have a request. Do you know of any programs that deal with diet?

Last week... tests showed I am diabetic. Thus they put me on a 1200 calorie per day diet. Hell, that's starvation.

Anyway, I have to keep track of everything I eat and a lot of other stuff and the thought came to me of why not use the TRS-80 and the next thought was that there might be some software already written for diets.

I know how to do some of the things to write a program but some things like a three day average, always using the last three days, have me stumped.

So I have a two-fold request. First do you know of any diet programs and second, if not do you know anyone I could pay to help me write a program so I can constantly monitor my condition?

James C. McCord Box 1672 Fairbanks, AK 99707

(I looked at one of those diets once and shuddered... take one from group A and two from group B, but not on Sunday or if you have eaten a slice of bread... Ugh! You have my sympathy, and I can't think of a better use for a TRS-80 in your case.

If anyone has information leading to the capture of such a diet program, please contact Mr. McCord directly. Ed)

I take issue with the editor that answered the complaint by Mr. Bentivegna of Cincinnati in the Sep/Oct 81 issue.

If the parties that place ads in your magazine do not know what the cost is going to be at the public release date they have no business taking an ad in your magazine and you should discourage this at all cost to your ad customers. If the computer business is so unstable that a firm price for at least a reasonable period of time after the magazine is delivered to the customer by you cannot be maintained then these firms should reconsider the price before issuing an offer to sell the product by mail through a magazine.

While I do not advise that you police each ad, the buying public would have more confidence in both you as a magazine and the firms that you provide ad space for if you would assert a less conciliatory attitude toward the firm that changes prices as they see fit.

W. B. McKinley

South Lyon, MI (It was the implication that we didn't care which prompted my reply. That hurts, especially since we go out of our way to present correct information. I stand by my original reply to Mr. Bentivegna. -Mike).

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